Hyperbaric oxygen chambers

An oxygen therapy chamber called a hyperbaric oxygen chamber has air pressure that is 1.5 to 3 times greater than normal air pressure. A surplus of oxygen in the blood encourages the production of stem cells, which aid in speedier healing and the return of normal bodily functions, as well as white blood cells and leukocytes, which fight germs. The pressure inside the chambers is often raised to between 250 and 280 kPa, or around 15 to 18 meters of water. Users may receive up to 40 sessions of therapy, which range in length from 45 to 300 minutes. The facilities for resuscitation and prompt mechanical breathing should be accessible, and appropriate monitoring is crucial during therapy.

While the most well-known HBOT chamber was built in Kansas in 1921, the first HBOT chamber built in the United States was in New York in 1861. Due to multiple cases of concentrated oxygen toxicity, HBO therapy for decompression sickness was not fully acknowledged and used until 1937 by Behnke and Shaw. Since HBOT has been shown to be beneficial, research on the subject has grown and its use as a treatment for a variety of medical problems has risen. HBOT is currently used for more than only treating decompression sickness https://oxyhelp.com/hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-treatments/ .

Heal sport injuries and boost energy:

From decompression sickness to pressure wounds, HBOT has been used for years to safely treat a variety of ailments. HBOT is becoming a common treatment option for professional athletes who are suffering from concussions, damaged muscles and tendons, or joint discomfort. Additionally, HBOT has been demonstrated to enhance the healing capability of all sports-related injuries, including concussions, when combined with additional therapies such as platelet rich plasma, stem cell injections, and others. 

HBOT is used by certain athletes to maintain peak performance, reduce injury risk, and stay in top physical shape. HBO2 therapy helps the body heal from injuries, including those sustained during sports and other activities, and it also raises its functional and athletic level. Long and hard training sessions cause hypoxia to become more prominent, which causes fluctuations in arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) that need more cardiorespiratory work to make up for the decreased oxygen supply and utilization and maintain performance and muscle activity. When these circumstances exist, HBO2 treatment may increase the quantity of dissolved oxygen in arterial plasma, thereby hastening the healing process. HBO2 therapy can also improve the oxygen supply to the skeletal muscular system in cases of exercise-induced weariness, which may stimulate cell activities, boost the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate, and promote the metabolic clearance of fatigue-inducing chemicals.

Promotes healthy aging:

In healthy aging, HBOT can lead to cognitive improvements. Numerous cellular, metabolic, and physiological alterations can be brought on by HBOT. Five categories may be used to categorize the biological pathways that HBOT has been shown to use to support healthy ageing. HBOT increases angiogenesis primarily through upregulating HIF-1 and a number of angiogenic markers. 

By limiting the number and activity of the cells that contribute to systemic inflammation, such as neutrophils, lymphocytes, astrocytes, and microglia, HBOT lowers inflammation. HBOT’s biochemical properties allow it to promote anti-inflammatory factors while suppressing pro-inflammatory ones. Through adjusting the ratio of scavengers to free radicals, HBOT strengthens antioxidant defences. 

The process is closely linked with the regulation of mitochondrial activity. The detrimental effects of cellular senescence, such as cell cycle re-entry and the reduction of senescence markers including p16/p21/p53, SA-gal, lipofuscin, and the SASP, are prevented by HBOT. Telomere shortening, one of the main factors in cellular senescence, is prevented by HBOT. By promoting their mobilisation, HBOT both increases the number of circulating stem cells and alters their properties by promoting their proliferation and differentiation.


Figure 1:Mechanisms by which HBOT promotes healthy aging

Enhance skin beauty:

Recent studies have shown the critical function oxygen plays in skin regeneration, photoaging skin treatment, and skin colour enhancement. The use of HBOT for this purpose is becoming more and more well-liked and intriguing every day. Chronic UV radiation from everyday exposure, particularly UV-B, may dramatically hasten the development of wrinkles in addition to age and genetic makeup by stimulating skin angiogenesis and destroying extracellular matrix components. 

It has been shown that HBOT and hyperoxia settings may minimise the appearance of wrinkles caused by UV exposure. It completes the task by possibly inhibiting a variety of processes and pathways, including as HIF1-, VEGF, neutrophil infiltrations, and MMP-2 and MMP-9, which are directly linked to enhancing skin angiogenesis in its active state. In medical aesthetic clinics, oxygen therapy under high pressure that is given directly to the skin to reduce visible wrinkles is already an option.

Improves brain function:

In healthy older individuals, HBOT has been shown to significantly improve cognitive function. Along with general cognitive abilities, the key increased areas include executive function (set shifting), attention, and information processing speed. A number of characteristics of brain activity are enhanced by HBOT, including cerebral blood flow, brain metabolism, and brain microstructure. 

These improvements in cognitive and physical functioning, sleep quality, and gait all contribute to an overall increase in performance. Additionally, the superior and middle frontal gyri, supplementary motor region, and superior parietal lobule cerebral perfusion was noticeably improved in the HBOT users. Following HBOT, there was a considerable increase in attention and information processing speed.

Strengthens immune system:

HBOT fortifies the immune system of the body while assisting in the blocking of dangerous bacterial activities. HBOT can neutralize some bacteria’s poisons. Additionally, it raises the tissue’s saturation with oxygen. Infection resistance is increased as a result. White blood cells’ capacity to track out and eliminate intruders is also enhanced by the treatment.

Hyperbaric oxygen chambers for home:

Hyperbaric oxygen chambers are not instruments used in medicine. They are high-end items and the safest ones made for use in homes. Mild chambers, commonly referred to as home hyperbaric chambers, provide mild hyperbaric oxygen treatment (mHBOT) and are appropriate for usage in clinical settings, wellness facilities, and private residences. Users don’t have to leave the comfort of their house to take advantage of the advantages of this therapy on their schedule. Home hyperbaric chambers, which provide mHBOT at pressures between 1.3 and 1.5, enable oxygen to dissolve and saturate more quickly in the blood, cerebral fluid, and synovial fluid, aiding in cell renewal and tissue repair.

Portable, zipper-sealed apparatuses with soft sides are sometimes referred to as mild HBOT chambers, inflatable hyperbaric chambers, and portable hyperbaric chambers. They are generally found in houses and give 24 percent oxygen. Low oxygen levels, poor blood flow, and inflammation are all addressed with mHBOT. In the course of therapy, a user’s lungs absorb more oxygen than is feasible by inhaling pure oxygen at atmospheric pressure, and the extra oxygen is transported throughout the system by the blood. They don’t exert as much pressure, though, as hard side models do. 

The greatest HBOT pressures are provided by hard hyperbaric chambers. Hospitals frequently find them to be a desirable investment. In a hyperbaric chamber, the concentrated oxygen molecules quickly dissolve into the circulation due to the abrupt rise in pressure. But due to their high cost, many lone users may not be able to afford them, they are not portable.

Between hard and soft chambers, there is a considerable change in the body’s oxygen content. A chamber with soft sides uses 24% of the oxygen. However, those who are strapped to an oxygen mask and transported in an ambulance get 55% more oxygen. Hard-shell hyperbaric chambers are used to give 100% oxygen. Even pressure fluctuations are not taken into consideration in these statistics. 157 mmHg of blood oxygen will be present in a person breathing normal air at normal pressure. 

In comparison, at 1.3 ATA and 24 percent oxygen, the pressure in a soft-sided chamber rises to 230 mmHg. A mask that distributes 55 percent oxygen and offers 418 mmHg of normal pressure is similar to those used in ambulance travel. In a hard-shell container, of course, the real difference takes place. In a hard-shell chamber with 2.4 ATA and 100% oxygen, your arterial oxygen levels increase to 1,824 mmHg. The idea behind hyperbaric oxygen therapy and how well it works as a therapeutic option depends on giving the body extra oxygen. Unfortunately, soft-sided chambers really only allow for regular breathing of air.

HBOT chambers are becoming more common in a variety of settings, including spas and the outpatient areas of hospitals. While some of the claims may be accurate, the FDA has expressed concerns about the hazards of using HBOT “off label.” The possible harms and risk-benefit ratio of hyperbaric oxygen have frequently been under-reported. Symptomatic reversible barotrauma occurs in 15-20% of treated individuals, severe central nervous system symptoms in 1-2% of patients, pulmonary symptoms in 15-20% of patients, and reversible ocular symptoms in up to 20% of users. 

The most frequent adverse effect, which might continue for weeks or months, is Although the adverse effects are mostly minor and reversible, they can nevertheless be serious and fatal. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is generally safe as long as pressures don’t go over 300 kPa and the treatment lasts less than 120 minutes.

In 2020, the market for hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) was valued at USD 3.08 billion, and by 2028, it is anticipated to reach USD 5.1 billion. The rise in market value therefore indicates that the sector will create a CAGR of 6.5 percent during the projection period of 2021–2028. The market for hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) equipment will increase as a result of soaring technical improvements and a widening range of applications in wound healing and aesthetic operations.

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